FaCD Online Syndrome Fact Sheet

Last updated: 29 Mar 2008

Name: Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma, Multiple Primary Malignancies in Patients with

Tumor features

melanoma, cutaneous
melanoma, uveal (choroidal, ciliary body, iris)/ocular
skin cancer, basal cell
skin cancer, squamous cell

Tumor features (possible)

endometrial cancer
glioma of the brain
hepatocellular cancer (hepatoma)
Hodgkin disease (Hodgkin's lymphoma)
leukemia, chronic lymphocytic (CLL)
non-Hodgkin lymphoma
oropharyngeal cancer
pancreatic adenocarcinoma
renal cell cancer
urinary bladder cancer


A range of second primary cancers has been reported in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma: particularly increased risk for second cutaneous melanona[1-4] and non-melanoma skin cancer[1;5], other cancers with significant increase in risk appear to be Hodgkin’s disease and NHL, particularly in males,[6,8], endometrial cancer[1], bladder cancer in men with melanoma>50 yrs[2], CLL (predominantly in males)[5], brain tumors (particularly in females)[5], oropharyngeal cancer[5], renal cancer (males)[3,8], possibly also pancreatic cancer (in young white females)[7].

After ocular melanoma, liver cancer risk but not non-melanoma skin cancer risk is increased[5].

General aspects to consider with respect to multiple primary tumors:
- Shared genetic (immune response, metabolic/hormonal/DNA-repair pathways) or non-genetic (chemical carcinogens, radiation, viruses, life-style) risk factors
- Therapy (radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal) related effects
- Possible bias because of increased surveillance and autopsy findings.


[1] Wassberg C, Thorn M, Yuen J, Ringborg U, Hakulinen T. Second primary cancers in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma: a population-based study in Sweden. Br J Cancer 1996; 73(2):255-259.
[2] Bhatia S, Estrada-Batres L, Maryon T, Bogue M, Chu D. Second primary tumors in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cancer 1999; 86(10):2014-2020.
[3] Schmid-Wendtner MH, Baumert J, Wendtner CM, Plewig G, Volkenandt M. Risk of second primary malignancies in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Br J Dermatol 2001; 145(6):981-985.
[4] Landthaler M, Braun Falco O, Bernreiter F, Holzel D. [Multiple primary malignant tumors in patients with malignant melanoma of the skin]. Hautarzt 1992; 43(1):11-15.
[5] Swerdlow AJ, Storm HH, Sasieni PD. Risks of second primary malignancy in patients with cutaneous and ocular melanoma in Denmark, 1943-1989. Int J Cancer 1995; 61:773-779.
[6] Riou JP, Ariyan S, Brandow KR, Fielding LP. The association between melanoma, lymphoma, and other primary neoplasms. Arch Surg 1995; 130(10):1056-1061.
[7] Schenk M, Severson RK, Pawlish KS. The risk of subsequent primary carcinoma of the pancreas in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cancer 82[9], 1672-1676. 1998.
[8] Wu YH, Kim GH, Wagner JD, Hood AF, Chuang TY. The association between malignant melanoma and noncutaneous malignancies. International journal of dermatology 2006; 45(5):529-34.